There should be no problem, providing you are using a pro mic with a known good XLR-XLR cable. The two signal wires (pins 2 and 3 on the XLR) will be elevated to the 48V phantom potential, and the body of the mic remains at ground. It's the small difference in the voltage between pins 2 and 3 that is amplified and becomes the audio output of the mic.
You should always plug and unplug microphones with the phantom power turned off.
In any self-respecting pre-amp, the 48V does not get applied to the TRS line input jacks.
Using the HP filter on the pre-amp (or on the microphone, if fitted) makes it less likely that you will need to apply further high-cut in the mix. However, you should treat the HP-filtered mic channel as simply an audio channel in its own right, and if it needs further EQ to fit it into the mix, then apply it (in moderation) as you would for any other channel.